Immune system disorders are normally referred to as autoimmune diseases which cause abnormally low activity (hypo) or overactivity (hyper) of the immune system.
- Hyper – In cases of immune system overactivity, the body attacks and damages its own tissues.
- Hypo-Immune deficiency diseases decrease the body’s ability to fight invaders, causing vulnerability to infections.
In response to an unknown trigger, the immune system may begin producing antibodies which instead of fighting infections, attack the body’s own tissues. Treatment for autoimmune diseases generally focuses on reducing immune system activity which is not necessarily the best way.
Autoimmune diseases include:
Treatments for Autoimmune Disorders and Diseases
Many of these conditions are treated by reducing Immune System Activity, usually with prednisone or another corticosteroid. We would contest that these are usually only symptomatic treatment modalities. Immunotherapy can be used to treat autoimmune diseases.
One of the approaches is T-Cell vaccination, which is used to treat multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis amongst others.
Ordinarily, immune cells recognize their own tissues and do not cause adverse effects and are removed after the recognition. However, when the immune regulation is impaired, these immune cells are not destroyed and react to their own tissues as alien substances in the body. That is the reason why the destruction of the own tissue starts and develops the autoimmune disease.T-Cells immunotherapy is based on the fact that an autoimmune reaction in the body is caused by its own immune cells against its own tissue.
This treatment method helps to control this process and prevent it at the activation stage. Disease-specific T and B cells are collected from the patient’s blood (preferably during the course of the active autoimmune response). Then these cells are multiplied, inactivated and used for T-cell vaccine production in the laboratory. The vaccine is injected subcutaneously according to the appropriate treatment plan.
The inactivated disease-specific cells in the vaccine are capable to initiate an immune response against the disease-causing cells in the patient’s body to themselves becoming inactivated. Most importantly, the inactivation occurs during the initial stages of the autoimmune response hence preventing processes that lead to further consequences of the disease. This therapy is mostly effective for patients presenting forms of multiple sclerosis and all forms of rheumatoid arthritis and we look to other methods for the control or treatment of other autoimmune diseases.
Exosomes are nano-sized bio vesicles released into surrounding body fluids upon fusion of multivesicular bodies and the plasma membrane. They were shown to carry cell-specific cargos of proteins, lipids, and genetic materials, and can be selectively taken up by neighbouring or distant cells far from their release, reprogramming the recipient cells upon their bioactive compounds. Therefore, the regulated formation of exosomes, specific makeup of their cargo, cell-targeting specificity are of immense biological interest considering extremely high potential of exosomes.
In the immune system, exosomes have an important function in immunoregulation, including antigen presentation, immune activation, immune suppression, and immune tolerance via exosome-mediated intercellular communication.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells isolated from different sources that can differentiate into other types of cells. In humans, these sources include; bone marrow, fat (adipose tissue), umbilical cord tissue (Wharton’s Jelly) or amniotic fluid (the fluid surrounding a fetus).
Mesenchymal stem cell differentiation: MSCs can make fat, cartilage and bone cells. They have not been proven to make other types of cells of the body. The therapeutic benefits of MSCs have prompt their use in cell-based strategies to treat different diseases.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and also exhibit multilineage differentiation. MSCs can be isolated from a variety of tissues, such as umbilical cord, endometrial polyps, menses blood, bone marrow, adipose tissue, etc. This is because the ease of harvest and quantity obtained make these sources most practical for experimental and clinical applications.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived exosomes are prompted to be the main effects on wound healing. The therapeutic capacity of MSC-‘exosomes’ derived from different organs, have been tested in various disease models, demonstrating a similar or even superior functional capacity to MSCs themselves, such as reducing myocardial infarction size, preventing adverse remodelling after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, providing therapeutic effects in cutaneous wound healing, acute kidney injury, hepatic injury, neonatal lung injury, promoting survival of retinal ganglion cells in optical nerve crush, ameliorating retinal laser injury and orchestrating neurological protection by the transfer of miRs.
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